On the possibility of contacts between Dinosaurs and Hominidae

      Cryptozoology is not only science on rare or extincting animals. It is important tool for resolving of big number of principal scientific question. Let us consider one of them.
      Dinosaur tracks are safed at ancient fossil grounds in a big scale. Foots of giant dinosaur gotted deep footprints at soils, some of them are safed till now. The footprint were studied carefully and suggested image Jurassik gigants. Sometimes dinosaur track are accorded by little track looked like human ones. There are some tents of such artefacts.
      Dinosaurs are popular heroes of many fiction films, e.g. "Million years before Christmas" and "Jurassik park", considering possibility of man and dinosaur meetings. Were such a meetings real?

      Well known

      190 Million years before our age a giant ecological "perestroika" took place. The climate become more wet. Mesosoic age - age of middle life - began. Amphibia, being musters of land, began to suffocate. They did not extincted at all, some of them survived as frogs, triton et. al. The new musters and hosts were reptilia, mainly dinosaur. Their diversity was shaking. Some of them were adopted to water environment - such as ichtiosaure, mesosaure. Some of them were adopted to land. The biggest of them was brachiosaure, which beautiful skeleton is demonstrated in New York and Boston paleonthological museums.
      There are some indirect data of more big dinosaur, possible name - gigantosaure, having 35 meters lenght! Dinosaur occupied air too. Flying dinosaures had a scale diversity. Pteronodon had wings 10 meters. But its mass was less 20 kg according to airdynamics principles. The same limit is typical for modern birds.
      Some old popular books consider dinosaures as slow primitive and fool animals. According to modern paleontological data they were complicated and progressive. They had warm blood, 4-cabin hart and complicated behavior as modern mammalia. The footprints suggested existence of collective behavior, nursery of progeny. The tracks of herd suggested organized pattern of animals - males, females and children. Such complicated behavior is not typical for modern reptilia.
      Unfortunately, such an odd animal groups suffocated to Paleogen age. The cause of suffocation is unclear. Some specialists suggested that the cause was ecological crisis because of giant meteorit dropping. Its print is Karibian sea. Dinosaures were changed for mammalia. The last burned the extreamly progressive generum Homo - the man!
      The most ancient species of man is Homo habilis - according to modern data lived in East Africa 4 millions years ago. 4 - 6 millions years ago lived its ancestors Australopithecos. Both of them belongs to family Hominidae. There are no significant data on more young Hominidae. The highest apes evilved parallel to men.
      Dinosaur disappeared 70 millions years earlier. Hence, there is giant distance between man and dinosaur and meeting of them is impossible.
      Is this opinion absolutely right? For consider question from title, let us consider it into 3 subquestions.
      1.Could people live under dinosaur time, hence to exist earlier that modern official dating?
      2. Could dinosaur survive later than official dating?
      The third question would be:
      3. Could exist in Jurassik time species of dinosaur close to man?


      The question from tittle is not narrow, but general question of biology and global ecology. The important task of global ecology is essay of species diversity within taxon, ecological system and biosphere. This task has relation to a big number of international programs of variability and diversity safety. Theoretical basis of such a programs is not sufficient firm because the following questions are unclear:
      1. How much species exists?
      2. What is biological variability of main classes of animals and plants?
      3. What is tempo of extinction?
      4. What is tempo of new species apporation (and does this process take place)?
      I am unable to answer all this questions within one articles. The aim of the present work is looking for way toward answering of the questions.
      Modern ecological problems are resolved without fundamental scientific basis. "Red book" is important document suggesting some international programs for diversity conservation. Unfortunately, the importance of such a document as "Red Book" is limited because of: 1. There is no criteria for listing of species into Red Book.
      2. The number of species in international Red Book - about 1 000 - is less then general number of known species - about 4 000 . The number of all possible species according to different authors is between 8 and 100 millions. The question on general biological diversity and pattern of species of biosphere is very complicated. The complete desigion of the question may be gotten in far future.
      The image of ancient biosphere is restored by fossil records. According to C. Darwin it is imcompleteness. Despite of giant progress in paleontology, incompleteness is actual till now. Thats why old world is hidden. There are many different evolution theories. Even fixism, declorating absence of evolution, sirvives till now. Its postulates are confirmed by information and testimonies on alive animals that are considere as extincted. Not all of the testimonies are significant. But time of surviving af many species appeare to be more, that declorate tradition paleontology. Great soviet scientists and wrighter Ivan Efremov suggested tafonomy as science on safing and destruction of organic remains in 1950. Methods of this science is effective tool for reconstruction of past biota basing on fragment remains.
      According to modern paragigma, evolution is ectinction of old species and burning of a new. The process is consedered as irreversable. The axioma "one way evolution" appeare to be right, but not absolutely right. Sometimes appearance and diappearance of species may be illusive. Important character of evolution is ossilation of population under safing of general diversity.
      Safety of dead body is incomplete. The body distruction is controled by 1). Chemical destruction, 2). Water streams destruction 3. Mechanical destruction by soil dynamic 4). Anthropogenic artificial destruction. And so on.
      The first days after dead the destructive biological mass depend on time by exponent. A new dead body is free ecological niche for necrophags and it is occupied by exponence. After stabilization of a new ecological system, destruction become less biological and more chemical process. The dependence destruction - time is quadrat. The speed and direction of reaction is constant, and mass is equal to speed and surface where reaction exists. The surface is equal to quater of lenght. The process may be descrided by mathematical models.
      The whole sceletons are available but some exception. As a rule paleontologists deals with some bones. 5 - 10 of them randomly selected from sceleton are sufficient for identification of species. Typical vertebrate sceleton has 100 - 250 bones. Species having less 5% of one sceleton apeeared to be hidden.
      During my work at Kostenky (Woronezh land) neolit excavation I got the following data. During time 20 000 - 25 000 yeas ago 140 000 mammuths and 300 000 people were there. About 70 - 100 mammuth remains having about 10% of sleton and 4 man sceleton having different safety scale was founded. According to essay made by me, species, close to big primate but having population density 20 - 25 times less than Homo sapiens fossilis may be missed by fossil records. Kostenky excavation fixed about 50 % of mammals and mollusks, that is organisms, having sceletons. Let us name real species missed by fossil records as hidden.
      Evolution is not only appearance and disapperance of species. Evolution sometimes is change of population size. According to russian scientist V.Vernadsky, the main characters of biosphere are stable. Hence, modeling past biosphere we must keep in minde that species diversity is equal at every ages.
      Hidden species (and bigfoot is between them) are reserve of biosphera. They are able occupy every niche that become free from other species. That why biosphera is extreamly resistant.
      Majority of species appear earlier and disappered later that was declorated by tradition paleontology. This idea did not suggest reality of man-dinosaure meeting but suggest that the meeting is not only fiction.

      Could people live under dinosaur time?

      Hence, tradion dating of man as generum is 2, maximally 4 millions years. The data are under discussion. The most precise method is C-14 carbon is effective till 60 000 years. K-Ar method is effective for some millions but its mistake is 100%. Hence, wide spread time detection may be not correct. Professor Juan Peikhua (China science and technik university) got a progress in electron-spin resonans method for bones dating (Journal "Kitai" - China #3 - 1990). According to this scientist, fossil man Synanthropus pekinensis - (Homo erectus) has not 400 - 500 thousands, but 5 millions 780 thousands.
      At 1982 according to american scientist Roger Lewin, mandibula of ape close to shimpanzee with age 17 millions years was found at east Africa. Apes have the same age, than man.

      Could dinosaur survive later official dating

      Did such progressive group as dinosaures extincted at all?
      Вавilon is oldest city wit age more than 5 000 years. The gate entrance "Ishtar" were bilted at 7 age b.c. There are some realistic animal images at the gates. Between them is creature looking likeу brontosaure. Unfortunately the gates were under bomb attack by US army, and may be they will be destried till desiding of their enigma.
      American zoologist Ivan Sanderson collekted many testimonies on living dinosaurus. City Lion Falls is 200 miles from New York. The Black river is close to Lion Falls. Many aborigens saw creature like dinosaurus at the river.
      Many strange testimonies were collected in Africa. At 1933 young Sanderson was in Kameroon jungles. He saw a living dinosaure - pterodactylus. According to Sanderson, aborigenes knew on the animal and afraid of it. Sanderson consider living pterodactylus as giant. I cant agreet with it. Fossil records suggest that it was little - like pegion. Animal more 20-25 kg cant flight accorging to aerodynamic laws. Two testimonie on creatures like pterodactylus were at area of St. Petersburg distrikt. There is infornation from central Africa jungles on creature Mokele - Mbembe. It looked like tirannosaure. The first information for Europen science on it was within materials of german expeditions conducted by Stain von Lauznits. He did nit see creature, but collected aborigens tales. Acoording to them, it looked like great lizard and hunts for hyppopo. German scientists saw tracks of monstroue, but did not got final conclusion on reality of creature. Then a new testimonies were recorded. Famous american scientist Ivan Sanderson saw it at Kameroon jungles at 1932. Ivan wrote "The cying of creature was terrible lime bomb explosure. After it my conductors-aborigens fallew down. I saw a head at a big distance - it was like the whole body of adul hyppopo. We run away like sprinters"... At the same year South Africa hunter F.Hobler saw predator creature at north Angola. Some aborigens told that it is not predator but grass eating. At 1938 г. belgian hunter Lepage saw creature in Kongo jungles. He told that its lenght was 12 m. Footprint has 3 fingers. secretary of international cryptozoological society Roy Mackal visited Zair within 1981 - 1982 and published interest book "Livin dinosaure - Mokele Mbembe". According to author, alive dinosaure is like Iguanodon or Tyrranosaure. Ecology of them are different. The first is grass-eating, the second - preys eating. As for me, the secon hypothesis is mo real. Predators have population less then one of grass eating 10 times and may be more hidden.The question on african dinosaure is obscure till now. I must add, that majority of dinosaures were not giant. Acoording to taphonomy law, the biggest have more possibility to safe their bones during many years. The relation size-population of dinosaures was the same that of modern mammalia. A little dinosaures have more possibility to safe till now. We may conclude, that present species diversity is unclear till now. 5 million species are known, general quantity is bigger many times

      Could exist species of dinosaur close to man?

      Important evolution phenomena is convergency - similarity based on close environment without genetical similarity. Some dinosaures looked like modern mammalia. Ichtiosaure looked like dolphin, iguanodon looked like kengoroo. Did dinosaure like man existed? According some scientists (including Karl Sagan) suggested "mansaure". One bone, possibly belongigng to it is safed in New York museum of natural history. The bone was excaveted in Alberta at 1917. Such possible creature might have a material culture. But its remain were distructed according to taphonomy laws. Such hypothesis is not confirmed, but it is significant.
      We are unable to unswer main question, considering in the article. The hypothesis on "mansaure" is most real from all listed above facts. The final desigion of the problem may be goted in future.

Valentin Sapunov